Historical Background: Coastal Changes and Frisian Settlements
6245 BC (Third Storegga Slide) to the Great Flood of 2194–2191 BC. The large peninsula of Flylând¹ lies to the north of the Rêne (Rhine) estuary. The holy place where Frya gave the people her Tex (laws) before she ascended to the heavens (2194 BC) is marked by a jol wheel, spinning sunwise.
2191 BC to the flood of 307–306 BC. The place where Frya issued her Tex had become a stream, over which Fryasburch (Den Burg), seat of the folksmoder (Folk Mother), was built. The land around it was renamed Texlând (Texel). The former estuary of the Rêne was blocked and became the Flymar (Lake Flevo).
306 BC to the flood of AD 838 (when the Frisians had become Frankish subjects). This covers the era of the Frisian monarchy, based at Stâveren (Stavoren), upon the shore of an enlarged Flymar, which was evolving into what became known as the Almere, and later the Zuiderzee – currently the IJsselmeer.
 
Layout² of a Frisian burch (citadel), such as the one at Fryasburch. The houses formed the 6 spokes of the jol wheel, and in a central tower hung the foddik (lamp), at which the fâmna (priestesses) knelt in worship, led by the burchfâm (Borough Maid) – or, at Fryasburch, the folksmoder (Folk Mother) herself.
The ten Frisian folks, and their approximate regions of settlement. The Kâd-hêmar extended west and south in Gaul. Frisians also inhabited Atland³ (Doggerland), Skênland (Southern Sweden), Brittanja (Britain) – the land of the exiles – and Kadik (Cádiz), as well as many other colonies in the Mediterranean.
Seaborne expansion of the Frisians, 5th millennium BC to the destruction of Atland in 2194 BC, determined by the distribution of megalithic monuments in Neolithic and Bronze Age Europe. These structures include dykes, tombs, causeways and stone circles, connected by a vast network of leys, or alignments.
 
¹The Fly was a branch of the Rêne (Rhine) flowing north into Wr-alda’s Sea (North Sea), giving its name to Sûdar Flylânda (South Holland), West-flylând (North Holland) and Ast-flylând (Friesland). Much of Flylând – especially West-flylând – was submerged in 2194 BC.
²The burch at Liudgârda (Leeuwarden) was over 600 feet in diameter (1 Frisian foot = 1.1 modern English feet). Fryasburch was even greater.
³Atland, or Aldland – the massive North Sea island known as Doggerland to archaeologists – was the original homeland of the Frisians, as is clearly implied by the repeated references to it in the Oera Linda Book. Confusion has arisen because the homeland, or ald-lând, of the Finns also perished during the Great Flood.
Frisian Matriarchy: ANCESTRESS of the Frisians ~ FOLK MOTHERS of Texland ~ FOLK MOTHER (acting)
2194 BC. Loss of Atland during the Great Flood.
2013 BC. Loss of Southern Sweden to the Finns.
1630 BC. Loss of lands to Syrhêd and her Celts.
 
Name (OLB)

FRYA¹

FÆSTA

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MINNA
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RÔSA-MVDA
HEL-LICHT
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FRÂNA
ADELA³
(interregnum)
GOSA
(interregnum)
PRONTLIK
Surname (OLB)

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HELLÊNJA

MAKONTA

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Name (Cron.)

FRYA
FASTA/FESTA
SÜNJE
MINNA
STINTJE
INSKA/INSKE
FENNA/FENNE
ELKE
SWANTJE
INSA/INSE
RÔSAMOND
HEL-LICHT
GERIT/GERRIT
STINA/STINE
RENSKE
WIBEKE/WIBKE
INKA/INKE²
ALETTA/ALETTE
ELTJE
DYWEK
NELA/NELE
IMKA/IMKE
IMME
ENNA
HILKA/HILKE

FENNEKE
HEIKE
RENKE
TJARDA
FRÂNA
ADELA/DELA

GESA/GESE

PRONTLIK
Reign (OLB)

?–2194 BC
2194–after 2145
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fl. 2013
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?–1631
1631–before 1621
fl. 1621
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?–590
590–559

306–?

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Reign (Cron.)

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2214–2038 (2214–1978)
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2038–1906 (1978–1912)
1906–1870 (1912–1872)
1870–1820 (1872–1820)
1820–1757
1757–1711
1711–1667
1667–1621
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1621–1580
1580–1553
1553–1489
1489–1429
1429–1377
1377–1328
1328–1277
1277–1224
1224–1186
1186–1155
1155–1114
1114–1056
1056–1006
1006–946
946–884
884–814
814–714
714–644
644–589
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361–263

70–50
Notes

reigned ‘seven generations’
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revolt of Syrhêd
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captured and murdered
acting Folk Mother, murdered
no Folk Mother
appointed no successor
no Folk Mother
during reign of Adel IV, fled
 
1149 BC. Loss of Britain to the Trojans (Celts).
592 BC. Loss of Denmark to the Finns.
560 BC. Loss of lands to the Celts and Finns.
 
¹Frya is said to have lived among her descendants, the Frisians, for ‘seven generations’ before ascending to her watch-star, a mythological era corresponding to the growth of megalithic civilisation under the leadership of the fâmna – the order of priestesses, or maidens. Remembered as Freyja and Frigg in Old Norse (originally the same goddess, but subsequently regarded as two distinct individuals), Frija in Old High German, Frige in Old English, and by many similar variants.
²Inka, or Inke, the Folk Mother, should not be confused with the earlier (male) Inka, brother of Tünis, who led his fleet in search of any surviving remnants of Atland above water, around 2006 BC – and who, it is speculated, may have sailed to South America and given his name to the later Inca civilisation of Peru.
³Adela collected together the texts that formed the Oera Linda Book, passing it on to her descendants in the Oera Linda (Over de Linden) family as custodians: Adelbrost (d. 559 BC), Apollônja (fl. 559), (?), Frêthorik (fl. 306), Wil-jo (fl. 264), Konerêd (fl. 264), Bêden (fl. 151 BC), (?), Liko (fl. AD 803), (?), Hidde (fl. 1256), Okke (fl. 1256), (?), Andries (I) (fl. 1718), Jan (d. 1794), Andries (II) (d. 1820), Aafje (d. 1848), Cornelis (I) (d. 1874), Leendert Floris (d. 1919), Cornelis (II) (d. 1958) – who in 1938 donated the Oera Linda Book to the Provincial Library of Friesland (Tresoar, the Frisian History and Literature Centre, since 2002).
Sources: Oera Linda Book, Croniicke ende warachtige beschryvinghe van Vrieslant (Occa Scarlensis, Johannes Flytarp & Andreas Cornelius, 1597).

Frisian Monarchy: KINGS of the Frisians ~ DUKES of the Frisians (Roman clients) ~ LADY of Ameland

264 BC. Frisian expansion under Friso.
AD 11. Loss of lands to the Franks and Finns.
AD 690. Loss of lands to the Christian Franks.
 
Name (OLB, Fris.)

ADEL I

ADEL II
ADEL III
ADEL IV
DIOCARUS
DIBBALD
TABBO
ASCONIUS
ADELBOLD
TITUS
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HARON I
ODILBALD I
HARON II
RICHOLD I
ODILBALD II
RICHOLD II
BEROALD
ADGILLIS I
RADBOD I
ADGILLIS II
GONDEBOLD
RADBOD² II
TEKLA³
Surname (OLB, Fris.)

FRISO¹
ATHA-RIK
UBBO
ASEGA-ÂSKAR
SEGON
SEGON
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_
_
BOIOCALUS
UBBO
UBBO
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UDOLPH
OFFO
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_
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_
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Reign (OLB)

304–264 BC
264–?
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Reign (Cron.)

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AD ?–680
680–719
719–734
734–?
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?–806
Reign (Fris.)

313–245 BC
245–151
151–71
71 BC–AD 11
AD 11–46
46–85
85–130
130–173
173–187
187–240
240–299
299–335
335–360
360–392
392–435
435–470
470–533
533–590
590–672
672–723
723–737
737–749
749–775
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Notes

de facto
king
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_
Asinga Ascon/‘Black Adel’
on behalf of Dibbald
imprisoned in Brabant, 11–46
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_
abdicated, died 208
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Audulf (?)
Offa of Angel (?)
Finn (?)
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Aldgisl
Redbad
Poppo/Bubo, killed in battle
Adgillis III
fled to Denmark
accepted Christianity
 
AD 719. Loss of lands to the Christian Franks.
AD 734. Loss of lands to the Christian Franks.
AD 775. Ameland, the last Frisian enclave.
 
¹Friso led the Frisian colonists of the Punjab – where they had been settled since 1551 BC – to their ancestral homeland. Apparently with the blessing of Gosa, who had been elected Folk Mother in 306 BC after nearly three centuries of disunity, Friso assumed effective control as a military dictator. Though always listed as king, he never actually held that title, which was, however, granted to his son, Atha-rik, establishing a hereditary monarchy.
²Radbod II fled to Denmark in 775, after the Franks completed their decades-long conquest of the Frisians. He and his fellow refugees stirred up their Pagan kinsmen, known to history as the Vikings, to attack and pillage Christian Europe.
³Tekla (Thecla), daughter of Gondebold, maintained her independence on Ameland until 806, when the island was taken over by Taeke Cammingha, whom she was forced to marry. The last surviving citadel, at Fâstaburch (Nes), was converted into a Christian convent. This, with its associated monastery, moved to Ferwert on the mainland in 1109, though retained the name ‘Foswert’ as an echo of its origins. It was dissolved in 1580 during the Dutch Reformation.
Sources: Oera Linda Book, Frisia; seu, De viris rebusque Frisiæ illustribus, libri duo (Martinus Hamconius, 1620).