Maidens at Worship: Kneeling Before the Sacred Flame
In ancient times, every Frisian town had a burch (citadel), run by a burchfâm (Burgtmaagd, or Borough Maid) and her 28 fâmna (maidens), as priestesses. Seven of these were at worship, in 3-hour shifts, at all times (OLB, Ch. 7) – kneeling before the foddik (lamp), with its eternally burning flame. Up to seven of the aldfâmna (elder maidens) also attended, and the burchfâm presided twice a day.

On bended knees, maidens offered their thricefold gratitude to Wr-alda, the All-father – “for what you have received, for what you do receive, and for the hope of aid in time of need.” (OLB, Ch. 5). Strictly celibate, they wore a short, plain tunic known as the tohnekka (OLB, Ch. 36), and permanently avoided all bodily poisons and passions, lest they polluted the light.

Refounding of the Maidenschaft, or order of maidens, 20 July 1936.
Rebuilding the Citadel: Ancient Wisdom for the Modern Age
Interest in the Oera Linda Book was revived in the 1930s by writers such as the Austrian mystic, Karl Maria Wiligut (1866–1946), and the Dutch historian, Herman Wirth (1885–1981).
Under Wiligut’s supervision, the 17th century Wewelsburg Castle, Westphalia, was converted into a Frisian-style burch (citadel). The vault under the North Tower was redesigned to house a perpetually burning flame, to be fed by a gas pipe under the floor, and twelve stone pedestals were set up around the wall for the maidens. Plans were drawn up for a vast, circular estate around the castle in the shape of a 6-spoked jol wheel, but war put a stop to these, and the flame was never lit.
The modern order of maidens, or Maidenschaft, takes its inspiration, in part, from the writings of Karl Maria Wiligut – and its rites, rules and regulations from the Oera Linda Book itself.
1. Maidens adhered to a frugal, vegetarian diet comprising two daily rations, eaten directly after worship. Fasting on Fridays and during festival weeks, they served communal feasts to the people. All drugs, bodily toxins and sexual activity were banned, on pain of expulsion.
2. When worshipping, left knees on the ground, right knees pointing to the foddik, maidens drew the spirit of Wr-alda – the All-father – into their bodies from above, and the spirit of Jrtha – the Earth-mother – into their bodies from below, while sending both spirits, mingled, into the foddik, and from there, purified, to the land and all its people, continuously chanting “Wr-alda t-Anfang t-Bijin” (mp3 file) – ‘Wr-alda, the Origin, the Beginning’ – for fertility and growth. Maidens were assigned shifts for their two daily worship sessions based on the season of their birth.
3. The only garment allowed for maidens was the tohnekka – a short, plain tunic of natural fibre, with a rope belt and sandals – to be worn at all times, in all weathers.
In 1936 the Greek choreographer, Koula Pratsika (1899–1984) – after studying in Austria and Swabia, and recognising the close links between the ancient Frisian and Greek civilisations – re-established the Maidenschaft, or order of maidens, at Olympia, Greece, taking as her inspiration the Oera Linda Book and the writings of Karl Maria Wiligut. The following year she founded the National School of Dance in Athens, specialising in the revival of Pagan cultural and religious practices.
Koula Pratsika was recognised as matriarch, or folksmoder (Folk Mother), of the Maidenschaft until her passing in 1984, and was succeeded by her deputy, Maria Hors (1921–2015), who had been present at its refounding in 1936. From the beginning, the revived order has emphasised service to others, and to the earth as a whole, as among its principal aims.
(1) Wewelsburg Castle, Westphalia. (2) Koula Pratsika as burchfâm, kneeling before the foddik with her maidens, 20 July 1936. (3) Maidens changing places between worship shifts.
Daily Watches: Maidens’ Regular Worship Routine
Perfection through purity of body, mind and spirit. All maidens must:

1. Abstain from meat products, intoxicants, orgasm and sex.
2. Bend knees in worship for six hours every day.
3. Wear a short, plain tunic at all times.

Priestesses’ training group  based on the teachings of the Oera Linda Book. Also for general discussion of the book’s origins.

Oera Linda: Priestesses’ Training Group.
Daily Watch

1. 12am–3am
2. 3am–6am
3. 6am–9am
4. 9am–12pm
5. 12pm–3pm
6. 3pm–6pm
7. 6pm–9pm
8. 9pm–12am




The Frisian day comprised eight watches of three hours each. Maidens knelt in worship for two watches every day (am and pm) at the citadel, and in the others worked, learnt and slept (OLB, Ch. 40). After seven years they became aldfâmna (elder maidens), taking roles as guides, teachers and judges, and becoming eligible for appointment as burchfâmna. The head burchfâm was the folksmoder (Folk Mother), ruling her people in succession to Frya, ancestress and lawgiver to the Frisians.
A maiden’s worship shifts were determined by the season of her birth, and designated by one of four colours – Black Winter (21 Dec–21 Mar). Red Spring (22 Mar–20 Jun). WhiteSummer (21 Jun–20 Sep). Blue Autumn (21 Sep–20 Dec).
Wr-alda (‘most ancient’), the All-father, to whom all worship is due, is the Creator. His name evolved into ‘world’ in modern English. “Wr-alda, who alone is eternal and good, made the beginning. Then commenced time. Time wrought all things, even the earth.” (OLB, Ch. 4). Jrtha (‘earth’), the Earth-mother, brought forth three maidens: Lyda, Finda and Frya, the foremothers of the human race. Frya became the eponymous ancestress of the Frisians, who lived among her children for seven generations before summoning them together and issuing her Tex (laws) in 2194 BC (OLB, Ch. 5), during the Great Flood, and then ascending to her watch-star.

Frya also gave her people writing, in order to record her Tex (OLB, Ch. 20). The ‘standing’ form of each of her letters is shown on the right, with its later ‘running’ form below it. The ‘running’ forms eventually evolved into the variously attested runic scripts, and also strongly influenced the early Phoenician alphabet – the ancestor of the Greek, Roman and Cyrillic systems, among others. The jol-based formation of the letters was forgotten.

The 33-letter Frisian alphabet, in its ‘standing’ and ‘running’ forms, as used in the Oera Linda Book.
Yule: The Wheel of the Year
The Frisian calendar, like its writing system, was derived from the jol (Juul, or Yule), or 6-spoked wheel. There were six annual festivals, starting at the winter solstice, plus twelve months of 30 days each – with the exception the third month, which had 29 days in common years and 30 in leap years. The festivals were placed outside the months, and all except Jol-fêrste (Juulfeest, or Yule Feast) were named after the months they preceded (OLB, Ch. 35). The disposition of leap years was originally determined by observation of the spring equinox, thereby fixing the date of the Jol-fêrste nine months in advance, but the following table has been standardised according to our modern Gregorian calendar, and can be used for all years.
Festival & Month

1. Herdemônath
2. Sellamônath
3. Jrthamônath
4. Gârsamônath
5. Minnamônath
6. Lithamônath
7. Êwamônath
8. Arnemônath
9. Wraldamônath
10. Gêlemônath
11. Slachtamônath
12. Wolfamônath
English Translation

Yule Feast
1. Hard Month
2. Soil Month
Earth Feast
3. Earth Month
4. Grass Month
Merry Feast
5. Merry Month
6. Lithe Month
Even Feast
7. Even Month
8. Corn Month
World Feast
9. World Month
10. Yellow Month
Slaughter Feast
11. Slaughter Month
12. Wolf Month
Standard Dates

21 Dec
22 Dec–20 Jan

21 Jan–19 Feb
20 Feb
21 Feb–21
22 Mar–20 Apr
21 Apr
22 Apr–21
22 May–20 Jun
21 Jun
22 Jun–21 Jul

22 Jul–20 Aug
21 Aug
22 Aug–20 Sep

21 Sep–20 Oct
21 Oct
22 Oct–20 Nov

21 Nov–20 Dec
The Oera Linda Book mentions five of the months – Herdemônath, Sellamônath, Minnamônath, Arnemônath and Wolfamônath (OLB, Ch. 41). The names of the other months can be reconstructed from later sources, though many variations exist. Days within the months may have been numbered backwards, from the festivals (OLB, Ch. 8), but if forward numbering is used, the festivals are not classed as part of any month.
Years were numbered from the sinking of Atland, or Aldland (the ‘Old Land’), in 2194 BC – a date fixed at the very start of the Oera Linda Book by the Letter of Hiddo.
“Written at Liuwert, in the three thousand four hundred and forty-ninth year after Atland was submerged—that is, according to the Christian reckoning, the year 1256.” (OLB, Ch. 1).
Some writers have incorrectly given the year of the destruction of Atland as 2193 BC, not having allowed for the absence of a ‘year 0’ on the Christian calendar. This mistake moves all dates given in the Oera Linda Book forward by one calendar year.
The Frisians recognised a 7-day week (OLB, Ch. 26), with each day dedicated to one of Frya’s ‘seven virgins of the week’ – perhaps the three foremothers Lyda, Finda and Frya, plus Fæsta, Mêdêa, Thjanja and Hellênja (OLB, Ch. 43). It can further be presumed that the ‘Frya’s day’ mentioned elsewhere (e.g. OLB, Ch. 6) – observed as a joyful feast by the people and as a fast by the maidens – was Friday. The number seven was clearly regarded as numinous, with frequent use throughout the Oera Linda Book. The Frisians’ day began at midnight, and comprised 24 equal-length hours, known as hours of the sun (OLB, Ch. 40). Three hours of the sun constituted a watch.
(1) Plan of Stonehenge, England. (2) 7th century silver bowl, found at Oegstgeest, South Holland. (3) Julleuchter, or Yule Lantern, to house the sacred flame. (4) Koula Pratsika as burchfâm, lighting the foddik with the sun’s rays.
The Maidenschaft: According to Karl Maria Wiligut
“So, for example, it came about that virgins who were chosen as BURGMAIDENS had to conform to special conditions... in order on the one hand to ensure the limitation of their sexual activity, and on the other hand to prevent them from generating descendents. The organisation of this corps of burgmaidens (Berg-Maidenschaft, whereby ‘berg’ means ‘the concealed’) clearly indicates clues in this direction when we look at its construction. The corps of maidens was organised in four groups...
HEXAS: Fâmna (maidens).
“The lowest group, the HEXAS, had as their duty the care and preservation of the eternal flame and its kindling for purposes of signalling (by day with smoke, by night with a bright flame). Fire was fetched from these women as a part of certain ceremonies or ritual customs... for the lighting the hearth-fire of newly married couples. As a part of land-taking or new settlement ceremonies, or when perhaps the hearth-fire had gone out, fire was kindled from live coals from these eternal fires. The Hexas were initiated into herbology and the arts of animal-healing and served as animal healers in some tribes and communities in addition to their service relevant to the fire.”

DRUDAS: Aldfâmna (elder maidens).

“The DRUDAS, however, provided service as ‘Wise Women.’ They were counsellors (in all affairs having to do with love and marriage) and midwives. Additionally, they provided service as healers of human beings. To this belonged not only knowledge of surgery, but also knowledge of herbs with the power to heal the human body. Therefore they had to have a considerable amount of knowledge about herbs at their disposal.”
WALAS: Burchfâmna (Borough Maids).
“Those belonging to the third group, the WALAS, not only had to possess the knowledge of the previous two groups, but were also in charge of the Maidenschaft which was self-contained and lived separate from all other tribes. Additionally, they had the assignment of being counsellors in all sorts of matters having to do with the well-being or suffering of the whole tribe. For this reason they had to have at their disposal meaningful historical data about the tribe and its individual clans, and had to know their characteristics by reason of this knowledge precisely. From this they drew logical conclusions as to how the tribe was to act in certain important events. Therefore from a knowledge of the history of the characteristics of the clans and a knowledge of the past of the tribe the concept of prophecy as well as necromancy was developed. It is therefore erroneous to believe that a kind of ‘sorcery’ was connected to these concepts. Pure concrete knowledge of the past as well as a clear perception of the present situation led to the correct conclusion as to how it was necessary for the clan or tribe to act. Because women have an innately clear vision relating to what is important in life, the Walas very often saved heatedly agitated men from disadvantageous actions by means of emergency decisions.”
ALBRUNAS: Folksmoderum (Folk Mothers).
“Finally, the ALBRUNAS, as the highest group of the Maidenschaft, were, like the Walas, counsellors—however, they acted as such for the entire folk. The position of Albruna was naturally very desired. So only those women who possessed especially excellent spiritual qualities were called upon for this from within the ranks of the Maidenschaft. From this presentation of the basic division of the Maidenschaft it is clear what a deep meaning the position of women had in past times. In the clan she was the protector and director of the honour of men as well as women. In the tribe she was the representative of high idealistic flights of thought and the kindler of enthuasism for great aims in the interest of the tribe and folk.” (Karl Maria Wiligut, Hagal 12, 1935, transl. Flowers & Moynihan, The Secret King, 2007)