Historical Background: Coastal Changes and Frisian Settlements
6245 BC (Third Storegga Slide) to the Great Flood of 2194–2191 BC. The peninsula of Flylând (a name that survives in the island of Vlieland) lies to the north of the large Rêne (Rhine) estuary. The place where Frya gave her Tex (laws), before ascending to the heavens (2194 BC), is marked here with a jol wheel.
2191 BC to the flood of 307–306 BC. The place where Frya issued her Tex had become a stream, over which Fryasburch (Den Burg), seat of the folksmoder (Folk Mother), was built. The land around it was renamed Texlând (Texel). The former estuary of the Rêne was blocked and became the Flymar (Lake Flevo).
306 BC to the flood of AD 838 (when the Frisians had become Frankish subjects). This covers the period of Frisian monarchy, based at Stâveren (Stavoren), upon the shore of an enlarged Flymar, which was evolving into what became known as the Almere, and later the Zuiderzee – currently the IJsselmeer.
The North Sea – Wr-alda’s Sea to the Frisians – prior to the Great Flood, showing the large island known as ‘Doggerland’ by modern archaeologists, and Atland, or Aldland (the ‘Old Land’), in the Oera Linda Book. The Frisians numbered their years from the sinking of Atland in 2194 BC, when Frya issued her Tex.
The ten Frisian tribes, and their approximate areas of settlement. The lands of the Kâd-hêmar extended west and south across Gaul. The Frisians also had colonies in Skênland (southern Sweden), Brittanja (Britain) – the land of the exiles – and Kadik (Cádiz), with many others on the coasts of the Mediterranean.
Seaborne expansion of the Frisians from circa 4700 BC to the submergence of Atland in 2194 BC, during the Neolithic and Bronze Ages, as determined by the date and distribution of megalithic remains. These include dykes, causeways, earthworks, menhirs, dolmens and stone circles – e.g. Stonehenge, England.
Frisian Matriarchy: ANCESTRESS of the Frisians ~ FOLK MOTHERS of Texland ~ FOLK MOTHER (acting)
2194 BC. Atland submerged during Great Flood.
2013 BC. Loss of southern Sweden to the Finns.
1630 BC. Loss of lands to Syrhêd and her Celts.
Name (OLB)

FRYA¹

FÆSTA²

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MINNA
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RÔSA-MVDA
HEL-LICHT
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FRÂNA
ADELA
(no Folk Mother)
GOSA
(no Folk Mother)
PRONTLIK
Surname (OLB)

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HELLÊNJA

MAKONTA

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Name (Cron.)

FRYA
FASTA/FESTA
SÜNJE
MINNA
STINTJE
INSKA/INSKE
FENNA/FENNE
ELKE
SWANTJE
INSA/INSE
RÔSAMOND
HEL-LICHT
GERIT/GERRIT
STINA/STINE
RENSKE
WIBEKE/WIBKE
INKA/INKE³
ALETTA/ALETTE
ELTJE
DYWEK
NELA/NELE
IMKA/IMKE
IMME
ENNA
HILKA/HILKE

FENNEKE
HEIKE
RENKE
TJARDA
FRÂNA
ADELA/DELA

GESA/GESE

PRONTLIK
Reign (OLB)

?–2194 BC
2194–after 2145
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fl. 2013
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?–1631
1631–before 1621
fl. 1621
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?–590
590–559

306–?

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Reign (Cron.)

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2214–2038 (2214–1978)
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2038–1906 (1978–1912)
1906–1870 (1912–1872)
1870–1820 (1872–1820)
1820–1757
1757–1711
1711–1667
1667–1621
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1621–1580
1580–1553
1553–1489
1489–1429
1429–1377
1377–1328
1328–1277
1277–1224
1224–1186
1186–1155
1155–1114
1114–1056
1056–1006
1006–946
946–884
884–814
814–714
714–644
644–589
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361–263

70–50
Notes

reigned ‘seven generations’
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revolt of Syrhêd
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captured and murdered
acting Folk Mother, murdered
vacancy 590–306 BC
appointed no successor
vacancy 263 (?)–70 (?) BC
during reign of Adel IV, fled
¹Frya is said to have lived among her descendants, the Frisians, for ‘seven generations’ before ascending to her watch-star, a mythological era corresponding to the growth of the megalithic culture, under the leadership of the Maidenschaft – the order of Frya’s maidens, or priestesses.
²The Frisians were not politically united until the time of Fæsta, the first Folk Mother, when attacks by hostile peoples such as the Finns led to the creation of an army. At the age of 12, all boys were required to spend one day a week practicing with weapons, and became warriors when they were proficient. Each Burgtmaagd (burchfâm) was given command of 300 young defenders (burchwêrar), plus 21 male elders (burchhêran) to advise her – seven civilians led by a Burgtmaster (burchmâster), seven warriors led by a Grevetman (grêvetman), and seven seamen led by an Olderman (ôldermôn) – all of whom were elected by the people. Directly subordinate to the Folk Mother herself was an annually elected king (kêning) to command the Frisian armies, though strict rules limited his terms of office.
³Inka, or Inke, the Folk Mother, should not be confused with the earlier (male) Inka, brother of Tünis, who led his fleet in search of any surviving remnants of Atland above water, around 2006 BC – and who, it is speculated, may have sailed to South America and given his name to the later Inca people.
Sources: Oera Linda Book, Croniicke ende warachtige beschryvinghe van Vrieslant (Occa Scarlensis, Johannes Flytarp & Andreas Cornelius, 1597).
1149 BC. Loss of Britain to the Trojans (Celts).
592 BC. Loss of Denmark to the Finns.
560 BC. Loss of lands to the Celts and Finns.

Frisian Monarchy: KINGS of the Frisians ~ DUKES of the Frisians (Roman clients) ~ LADY of Ameland

264 BC. Frisian expansion under Friso.
AD 11. Loss of lands to the Franks and Finns.
AD 690. Loss of lands to the Christian Franks.
Name (OLB, Fris.)

ADEL I

ADEL II
ADEL III
ADEL IV
DIOCARUS
DIBBALD
TABBO
ASCONIUS
ADELBOLD
TITUS
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HARON I
ODILBALD I
HARON II
RICHOLD I
ODILBALD II
RICHOLD II
BEROALD
ADGILLIS I
RADBOD I
ADGILLIS II
GONDEBOLD
RADBOD II²
TEKLA³
Surname (OLB, Fris.)

FRISO¹
ATHA-RIK
UBBO
ASEGA-ÂSKAR
SEGON
SEGON
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BOIOCALUS
UBBO
UBBO
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UDOLPH
OFFO
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Reign (OLB)

304–264 BC
264–?
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Reign (Cron.)

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AD ?–680
680–719
719–734
734–?
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?–806
Reign (Fris.)

313–245 BC
245–151
151–71
71 BC–AD 11
AD 11–46
46–85
85–130
130–173
173–187
187–240
240–299
299–335
335–360
360–392
392–435
435–470
470–533
533–590
590–672
672–723
723–737
737–749
749–775
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Notes

de facto
king
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Asinga Ascon/‘Black Adel’
on behalf of Dibbald
imprisoned in Brabant, 11–46
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abdicated, died 208
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Audulf (?)
Offa of Angel (?)
Finn (?)
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Aldgisl
Redbad
Poppo/Bubo, killed in battle
Adgillis III
fled to Denmark
accepted Christianity
¹In 306 BC, after nearly three centuries of disunity, the Frisians elected Gosa as Folk Mother, but two years later the Frisian colonists of the Punjab – where they had been settled since 1551 BC – returned, under the leadership of Friso. Apparently with Gosa’s blessing, Friso assumed effective control as a military dictator. Though always listed as king, he never actually held that title, which was, however, granted to his son, Atha-rik.
²Radbod II fled to Denmark in 775, after the Franks completed their decades-long conquest of the Frisians. He and his fellow refugees stirred up their Pagan kinsmen, known to history as the Vikings, to attack and pillage Christian Europe.
³Tekla (Thecla), a daughter of Gondebold, maintained a Frisian enclave on the island of Ameland until 806, when she was forced to marry Taeke Cammingha, who became lord. The last surviving burch, at Foswerd (Nes), was converted into a Catholic convent.
Sources: Oera Linda Book, Frisia; seu, De viris rebusque Frisiæ illustribus, libri duo (Martinus Hamconius, 1620).
AD 719. Loss of lands to the Christian Franks.
AD 734. Loss of lands to the Christian Franks.
AD 775. Ameland, the last Frisian enclave.